NOTE: In references (irrespective of the issue number), quotation marks are not used to identify the title of articles unless the text requires it for clarification. For example, an encyclopedia entry on a person should be in quote marks so it does not look like an article by that person, e.g. ‘Stuart, Arthur M.’, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 12th edition, 21:423, 1992.

From books

Use only the name of the city to identify the place of the publisher unless it is very obscure or there could be confusion with another city of the same name, then add state and/or country (whatever is necessary to properly clarify).

Riker, D., Editing on Earth, Reader’s Health, Sydney, p. 238, 1980.

Terence, C.H. and Stripes, T.R., The Discovery of Genesis, Aussie Vigor Publishing House, Brisbane, 1999.

Barts, S.E., Roberts Jr, B.E., Halifax, E. and Carson, K., The Redundancy of Repeated Words, John Cooper and Sons, New York, p. 32, 1958.

Heculan, J., translated from the Finnish by Uma Carryman, The Search for Good Writing, Harriet J. Simms Inc., New York, p. 258, 1982.

Aetheridge, c. 450 BC, The Histories, translated by Simon Uveratch, c. 1858, Lincoln, S. (Ed.), Ryan L. Suter Co. Inc., Rutland, Vermont, p. 32 (IV, 88), first published 1981, reprinted 2006.

No comma is needed between a book/article title and the publisher’s name if the book/article title in question ends with a question mark or exclamation mark.

From compilations of papers/essays and proceedings of conferences

Service, A.B. and Greenfields, O.G., Ways to make your business writing more readable; in: Longman U.V. (Ed.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on Copywriting, The Writing Fellowship of Australia, Sydney, pp. 14–18, 2011.

From radio or television

Grammar Update, ABC (Australia) News Radio, 2 March 2002.

From the internet

  • Don’t use http unless there’s no www in the address. No need for underlining of, or angle brackets around, web addresses as the ‘http’ or the ‘www’ signify it’s a web address.
  • The word ‘downloaded’ is not needed in reference lists, but do give the date of access if there is no publication date. If someone wrote an article in 2008 and we accessed it in 2011, then the two examples below show what we would write depending on whether there was a publication date.

    Example 1 (publication date available): Greenslade, A., Fantasy Women: The literary roots of phallocentrism in modern fantasy computer games,, 15 March 2008.


    Example 2 (no publication date available): Greenslade, A., Fantasy Women: The literary roots of phallocentrism in modern fantasy computer games,, as at 10 April 2011.

From encyclopedias

  • Siberian Tigers, The Fulman Encyclopaedia, 2nd edition, Burrows Books, Sydney, 4:601, 1982.
  • The Encyclopedia of World Geography, Bateman, G. and Egan, V. (Eds.), R.D. Press, Sydney, p. 420, 1996.
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, 1992.

In the case of well-known encyclopedias such as Britannica and Collier, there is no need to put the publisher.

From journals, periodicals

Abbreviations of journal titles are allowable provided they are very clear and consistent in the article.

Quiorn, D., Editing for a Living, International Writer 168(2):182, 1985.

Weir, C., Writing their way to freedom, Time 9(3):50–51, 1992.

Valley, R.C. and Pereira, H.G., Antigens and structure of the adenovirus, J. Mol. Biol. 13(43):13–20, 1965.

Pickson, K.S., Dan, B. and Roslin, L., Exterminating bad English, Journal of Creative Writing16(2):281–291, 2008.

Overman, M.J., Picking the Right Genre, Writing Res. Soc. Quart. 21(2):47–56, 1995.

Hiker, H., The need for flexibility with language online, Letters to the editor, Journal of Editing16(1):2–8, 2007.

From newspapers

The Sydney Morning Herald, 4 May1995, p. 3.

Going, going, gone. Books are going online, The Courier-Mail, Brisbane, 3 August 1998, p. 875.

From Scripture

1 John 2:1–11; Luke 8:22–25; Matthew 8:19, 33.

Guidelines for use of et al. when references have multiple authors

When referencing papers, more than three authors may be cited as first author et al., as long as the writer is consistent. However, there may be times when it might be appropriate to cite more than three authors (for example, when the research leader is listed last), in which case they would all be individually listed.

Reference with cross reference

Uttman, I.B. et al., Structure of writing: Memoirs, Creative Writing Magazine 370(649):621–628, 1994; comment by Shuster, G.K., How to start a memoir, same issue, pp. 594–595.

Bangle, Q.C., Stringing words together, Simon & Schuster, New York, 1996. Reviewed by Callum, T.G., Journal of Creative Writing 11(3):283–291, 1997. See also Diamond, M., Ways With Words,, 23 April 2003.

Reference from a secondary source

Roper, O., in Vizard P., Juniper Books, Basel, Switzerland, p. 245, (date if available); quoted in Matthews, O. and nine others, Novel structure with selection of chapters, Science of Writing780(5363):578–582, 1998.

Reference with quotation and/or comment

Thorne, D.W., Grammar: an Introduction, Moonlight Press, Chicago, Ch. 1, p. 171, 1989. Thorne wrote, ‘When I was at the 4th World Congress on Writing in London in 1978, I found that the only writers who were opposed to using editors were those of little writing skill.’

Avers and others have pointed out that the English skills of Queensland’s Generation Z: ‘… are stunted by their habit of using slang words and abbreviations in mobile devices and on the internet.’ Robertson, A.M., The changing nature of language and its potential for disaster, Language 89(1): 28–31, 1991.

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