Dashes fall into three categories:

Hyphens (-) are used for all hyphenated words, and for word breaks due to layout requirements (eg. column widths). No spaces are placed before or after the hyphen.
e.g.          This cross-over point moves as the joint opens and closes.
Multiple use of hyphens may be necessary for adjectival constructions,
e.g.          I have been given a 2-day-old chick.
 
En dashes (–) are used to replace the words ‘to’ or ‘through’ or ‘onwards’ when mentioning dates or numbers that are consecutive. No spaces are placed before or after the en dash.
e.g.          The years 1930–1945; pp. 56–67; pp. 2–.
But when giving a date range between BC and AD a space is placed on each end of the en dash, e.g. 52 BC – AD 108.
En dashes are also used for names of joint authors of a work, to distinguish the names from a single hyphenated name.
e.g.          The Greenslade–Booker English Grammar Dictionary
                The Robertson–Lowry edition
Very occasionally, an en dash and hyphen(s) may appear together, the context dictating their use:
e.g.          A 1–2-year-old child. 
                [i.e. a child somewhere between one and two years old.]
 
Em dashes (—) can be used as an alternative to commas to identify a parenthetical statement. No space is used before or after the em dash.
e.g.          ‘The local editor—when asked why brackets and em dashes should not be interchangeable—answered, “Brackets may be used, if you wish, but em dashes are less disruptive.”’
Em dashes can be used as an alternative to a colon to indicate a pause, including where that starts a list within a sentence (e.g. ‘There are many animals in the jungle—rhinos, elephants, lions, ...’).
   
Slashes (/) Generally no space either side except in the rare case where ambiguity could occur, e.g. ‘ancient rocks/fossils’ could mean both rocks and fossils are ancient, whereas ‘ancient rocks / fossils’ could mean rocks are ancient but not necessarily the fossils.

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